Wednesday, 6 July 2022

How to install Ansible on Ubuntu


On a host we want to use as Ansible control node execute:
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install ansible

To verify its install location:
$ which ansible
To verify installation, let's check Ansible version:

$ ansible --version
ansible 2.9.6
  config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = ['/home/bojan/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/ansible
  executable location = /usr/bin/ansible
  python version = 3.8.10 (default, Mar 15 2022, 12:22:08) [GCC 9.4.0]
We can also check out Ansible Help Command:
$ ansible --help
usage: ansible [-h] [--version] [-v] [-b] [--become-method BECOME_METHOD]
               [--become-user BECOME_USER] [-K] [-i INVENTORY] [--list-hosts]
               [-l SUBSET] [-P POLL_INTERVAL] [-B SECONDS] [-o] [-t TREE] [-k]
               [--private-key PRIVATE_KEY_FILE] [-u REMOTE_USER]
               [-c CONNECTION] [-T TIMEOUT]
               [--ssh-common-args SSH_COMMON_ARGS]
               [--sftp-extra-args SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS]
               [--scp-extra-args SCP_EXTRA_ARGS]
               [--ssh-extra-args SSH_EXTRA_ARGS] [-C] [--syntax-check] [-D]
               [-e EXTRA_VARS] [--vault-id VAULT_IDS]
               [--ask-vault-pass | --vault-password-file VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES]
               [-f FORKS] [-M MODULE_PATH] [--playbook-dir BASEDIR]
               [-a MODULE_ARGS] [-m MODULE_NAME]

Define and run a single task 'playbook' against a set of hosts

positional arguments:
  pattern               host pattern

optional arguments:
  --ask-vault-pass      ask for vault password
  --list-hosts          outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute
                        anything else
  --playbook-dir BASEDIR
                        Since this tool does not use playbooks, use this as a
                        substitute playbook directory.This sets the relative
                        path for many features including roles/ group_vars/
  --syntax-check        perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not
                        execute it
  --vault-id VAULT_IDS  the vault identity to use
  --vault-password-file VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES
                        vault password file
  --version             show program's version number, config file location,
                        configured module search path, module location,
                        executable location and exit
  -B SECONDS, --background SECONDS
                        run asynchronously, failing after X seconds
  -C, --check           don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
                        of the changes that may occur
  -D, --diff            when changing (small) files and templates, show the
                        differences in those files; works great with --check
  -M MODULE_PATH, --module-path MODULE_PATH
                        prepend colon-separated path(s) to module library (def
                        set the poll interval if using -B (default=15)
                        module arguments
  -e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars EXTRA_VARS
                        set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON, if
                        filename prepend with @
  -f FORKS, --forks FORKS
                        specify number of parallel processes to use
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -i INVENTORY, --inventory INVENTORY, --inventory-file INVENTORY
                        specify inventory host path or comma separated host
                        list. --inventory-file is deprecated
  -l SUBSET, --limit SUBSET
                        further limit selected hosts to an additional pattern
  -m MODULE_NAME, --module-name MODULE_NAME
                        module name to execute (default=command)
  -o, --one-line        condense output
  -t TREE, --tree TREE  log output to this directory
  -v, --verbose         verbose mode (-vvv for more, -vvvv to enable
                        connection debugging)

Privilege Escalation Options:
  control how and which user you become as on target hosts

  --become-method BECOME_METHOD
                        privilege escalation method to use (default=sudo), use
                        `ansible-doc -t become -l` to list valid choices.
  --become-user BECOME_USER
                        run operations as this user (default=root)
  -K, --ask-become-pass
                        ask for privilege escalation password
  -b, --become          run operations with become (does not imply password

Connection Options:
  control as whom and how to connect to hosts

  --private-key PRIVATE_KEY_FILE, --key-file PRIVATE_KEY_FILE
                        use this file to authenticate the connection
  --scp-extra-args SCP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to scp only (e.g. -l)
  --sftp-extra-args SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to sftp only (e.g. -f,
  --ssh-common-args SSH_COMMON_ARGS
                        specify common arguments to pass to sftp/scp/ssh (e.g.
  --ssh-extra-args SSH_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to ssh only (e.g. -R)
  -T TIMEOUT, --timeout TIMEOUT
                        override the connection timeout in seconds
  -c CONNECTION, --connection CONNECTION
                        connection type to use (default=smart)
  -k, --ask-pass        ask for connection password
                        connect as this user (default=None)

Some modules do not make sense in Ad-Hoc (include, meta, etc)

We can peek into the Ansible configuration file:
$ vi /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
# config file for ansible --
# ===============================================

# nearly all parameters can be overridden in ansible-playbook
# or with command line flags. ansible will read ANSIBLE_CONFIG,
# ansible.cfg in the current working directory, .ansible.cfg in
# the home directory or /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg, whichever it
# finds first


# some basic default values...

#inventory      = /etc/ansible/hosts
#library        = /usr/share/my_modules/
#module_utils   = /usr/share/my_module_utils/
#remote_tmp     = ~/.ansible/tmp
#local_tmp      = ~/.ansible/tmp
#plugin_filters_cfg = /etc/ansible/plugin_filters.yml
#forks          = 5
#poll_interval  = 15
#sudo_user      = root
#ask_sudo_pass = True
#ask_pass      = True
#transport      = smart
#remote_port    = 22
#module_lang    = C
#module_set_locale = False


Version of the Ansible package available at apt package manager is much older than the latest Ansible release: Ubuntu – Package Search Results shows version 2.9.6 (for Ubuntu Focal, 20.04) while the latest Ansible release ( Releases and maintenance — Ansible Documentation) at time of publishing this article is 5.

To uninstall Ansible installed via default apt package repository:

$ dpkg --list | grep ansible
ii  ansible                                                     2.9.6+dfsg-1                        all          Configuration management, deployment, and task execution system

$ sudo apt purge ansible

To install the most recent version of Ansible built for your/given Ubuntu version we can use ppa:ansible/ansible:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository --yes --update ppa:ansible/ansible
$ sudo apt install ansible 

$ dpkg --list | grep ansible
ii  ansible                                                     5.10.0-1ppa~focal                   all          batteries-included package providing a curated set of Ansible collections in addition to ansible-core
ii  ansible-core                                                2.12.7-1ppa~focal                   all          Ansible IT Automation

Note that this recent version separates ansible and ansible-core packages and their versions.



Installing Ansible on specific operating systems — Ansible Documentation

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