Friday, 8 March 2019

Introduction to Docker

Docker is a platform which allows some application and all its dependencies to be packed in a container, shipped within this monolithic bundle and then deployed on any other machine with no fear that some dependency would be missing or not compatible with the new host.

Here are some terms:

host
  •  may be local or remote

container
  • process which runs on a host

Docker runs processes in isolated containers.

docker exec


To execute a command inside a running container, use docker exec. For example, we can run a bash terminal as:

$ docker exec -it my-postgres bash
root@a4a7486fea59:/# 

-i // keeps stdin opened
-t // allocates pseudo TTY

In this terminal we can run usual Linux commands as we were inside the container:

root@a4a7486fea59:/# ls
bin  boot  dev docker-entrypoint-initdb.d  docker-entrypoint.sh  etc  home  lib  lib64  media mnt  opt  proc root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp usr  var
root@a4a7486fea59:/# pwd
/

docker ps


To list all running containers use docker ps:

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE   COMMAND         CREATED     STATUS      PORTS                      NAMES
b9f263f2b517 postgres "some.command…" 9 hours ago Up 5 hours  0.0.0.0:5432->5432/tcp  my_project_postgres_1

If no containers are running:
$ sudo docker ps
CONTAINER ID    IMAGE           COMMAND         CREATED         STATUS          PORTS               NAMES

To list all containers, use docker ps -a.

docker run


Container process that runs is isolated in that it has its own:
  • file system
  • networking
  • isolated process tree separate from the host

$ docker run --help

Usage: docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

Run a command in a new container

Options:
      --add-host list                  Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
  -a, --attach list                    Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
      --blkio-weight uint16            Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
      --blkio-weight-device list       Block IO weight (relative device weight) (default [])
      --cap-add list                   Add Linux capabilities
      --cap-drop list                  Drop Linux capabilities
      --cgroup-parent string           Optional parent cgroup for the container
      --cidfile string                 Write the container ID to the file
      --cpu-count int                  CPU count (Windows only)
      --cpu-percent int                CPU percent (Windows only)
      --cpu-period int                 Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
      --cpu-quota int                  Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
      --cpu-rt-period int              Limit CPU real-time period in microseconds
      --cpu-rt-runtime int             Limit CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
  -c, --cpu-shares int                 CPU shares (relative weight)
      --cpus decimal                   Number of CPUs
      --cpuset-cpus string             CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --cpuset-mems string             MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
  -d, --detach                         Run container in background and print container ID
      --detach-keys string             Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --device list                    Add a host device to the container
      --device-cgroup-rule list        Add a rule to the cgroup allowed devices list
      --device-read-bps list           Limit read rate (bytes per second) from a device (default [])
      --device-read-iops list          Limit read rate (IO per second) from a device (default [])
      --device-write-bps list          Limit write rate (bytes per second) to a device (default [])
      --device-write-iops list         Limit write rate (IO per second) to a device (default [])
      --disable-content-trust          Skip image verification (default true)
      --dns list                       Set custom DNS servers
      --dns-option list                Set DNS options
      --dns-search list                Set custom DNS search domains
      --entrypoint string              Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
  -e, --env list                       Set environment variables
      --env-file list                  Read in a file of environment variables
      --expose list                    Expose a port or a range of ports
      --group-add list                 Add additional groups to join
      --health-cmd string              Command to run to check health
      --health-interval duration       Time between running the check (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --health-retries int             Consecutive failures needed to report unhealthy
      --health-start-period duration   Start period for the container to initialize before starting health-retries countdown (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --health-timeout duration        Maximum time to allow one check to run (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --help                           Print usage
  -h, --hostname string                Container host name
      --init                           Run an init inside the container that forwards signals and reaps processes
  -i, --interactive                    Keep STDIN open even if not attached
      --io-maxbandwidth bytes          Maximum IO bandwidth limit for the system drive (Windows only)
      --io-maxiops uint                Maximum IOps limit for the system drive (Windows only)
      --ip string                      IPv4 address (e.g., 172.30.100.104)
      --ip6 string                     IPv6 address (e.g., 2001:db8::33)
      --ipc string                     IPC mode to use
      --isolation string               Container isolation technology
      --kernel-memory bytes            Kernel memory limit
  -l, --label list                     Set meta data on a container
      --label-file list                Read in a line delimited file of labels
      --link list                      Add link to another container
      --link-local-ip list             Container IPv4/IPv6 link-local addresses
      --log-driver string              Logging driver for the container
      --log-opt list                   Log driver options
      --mac-address string             Container MAC address (e.g., 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)
  -m, --memory bytes                   Memory limit
      --memory-reservation bytes       Memory soft limit
      --memory-swap bytes              Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
      --memory-swappiness int          Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100) (default -1)
      --mount mount                    Attach a filesystem mount to the container
      --name string                    Assign a name to the container
      --network string                 Connect a container to a network (default "default")
      --network-alias list             Add network-scoped alias for the container
      --no-healthcheck                 Disable any container-specified HEALTHCHECK
      --oom-kill-disable               Disable OOM Killer
      --oom-score-adj int              Tune host's OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
      --pid string                     PID namespace to use
      --pids-limit int                 Tune container pids limit (set -1 for unlimited)
      --platform string                Set platform if server is multi-platform capable
      --privileged                     Give extended privileges to this container
  -p, --publish list                   Publish a container's port(s) to the host
  -P, --publish-all                    Publish all exposed ports to random ports
      --read-only                      Mount the container's root filesystem as read only
      --restart string                 Restart policy to apply when a container exits (default "no")
      --rm                             Automatically remove the container when it exits
      --runtime string                 Runtime to use for this container
      --security-opt list              Security Options
      --shm-size bytes                 Size of /dev/shm
      --sig-proxy                      Proxy received signals to the process (default true)
      --stop-signal string             Signal to stop a container (default "SIGTERM")
      --stop-timeout int               Timeout (in seconds) to stop a container
      --storage-opt list               Storage driver options for the container
      --sysctl map                     Sysctl options (default map[])
      --tmpfs list                     Mount a tmpfs directory
  -t, --tty                            Allocate a pseudo-TTY
      --ulimit ulimit                  Ulimit options (default [])
  -u, --user string                    Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])
      --userns string                  User namespace to use
      --uts string                     UTS namespace to use
  -v, --volume list                    Bind mount a volume
      --volume-driver string           Optional volume driver for the container
      --volumes-from list              Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
  -w, --workdir string                 Working directory inside the container

Pulling the image from Docker Hub


docker run checks if image exists locally and if not it performs docker pull and downloads it from Docker Hub. [1]

Container identification


Container can be identified by:

  • UUID
    • assigned by the daemon
    • can be:
      • long
      • short
  • name
    • set by the developer via --name argument

Container Modes (-d) 


Docker can run processes (containers) in one of these two modes:

  • foreground
    • default mode
    • console is attached to process' stdin, stdout, stderr
  • background (detached)
    • -d has to be passed to docker run
    • container exits when 
      • the root process used to run container exits OR
      • when daemon exits (if this happens first)

Exposing Ports


If some process in the container is listening on some port and we want to allow connections from outside the container, we can open (expose) these incoming ports via -p option which publishes single port or range of ports to the host. Port number that service listens inside the container does not need to be the same as the port exposed to the host (where external clients connect). These mappings are specified like in these examples:

-p 1234:1234 // single port, all protocols
-p 1234:1234/tcp // allow only TCP protocol
-p 1234-1240:1234-1240 // range
-p 1234-1240:1234-1240/tcp // range, TCP protocol only

Environment variables


Use -e option followed by NAME=VALUE like in this example:

-e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=mysecretpassword

docker start


To start a container use docker start. In the following example container name is my-postgres:

$ docker start my-postgres
my-postgres

docker stop


To stop running one or more containers use docker stop:

$ docker stop my_service_postgres_1
my_service_postgres_1

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